Opening of the nymphaeum of Q. Mutius at Segni

Since 2013 the British School at Rome has worked in partnership with the Comune di Segni on the excavation and conservation of the nymphaeum of Q. Mutius, a monumental fountain in the town of Segni. This Saturday 20 October we are delighted to celebrate the opening of this monument to the public which will now form part of the archaeological visit to Segni, together with the Porta Saracena and the impressive polygonal walls, the well-preserved Temple of Juno Moneta and the archaeological museum of Segni.

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Post-excavation photogrammetry of the Segni nymphaeum.

The inauguration will commence at 10.30 a.m. with welcome speeches by Piero Cascioli, Mayor of Segni, Laura Onorati, Dirigente Città Metropolitana, Quirino Briganti, President of the Compagnia dei Lepini, Margherita Eichberg, Soprintendente ABAP Città Metropolitana Roma, Provincia di Viterbo e Etruria Meridionale and the Director of the BSR Professor Stephen Milner.

New protective structure for the nymphaeum at Segni

New protective structure for the nymphaeum at Segni.

Following this there will be brief presentations by Michelangelo Bedini, Fulvio Balzani and Francesco Maria Cifarelli (BSR Research Fellow) about the restoration project of the nymphaeum; by Stephen Kay (BSR Archaeological Officer) and Federica Colaiacomo about the excavation and by Francesco Maria Cifarelli about the architecture and history of this monument from the late Republican period. Visits to the monument will begin at 12.30 with other organised tours at 15.00 and 18.00. We very much hope that many of you can join us too celebrate this occasion.

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Stephen Kay (Archaeology Officer)

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Repatriation of ancient artifacts and the launch of the UK’s Monuments Men: Cultural Protection event at Villa Wolkonsky

On October 11, 2018, the UK Embassy and British School at Rome hosted an event at Villa Wolkonsky, the British Ambassador’s residence. The focus of the event was the protection of cultural heritage and it was attended by representatives from the UK and Italian governments, Carabinieri, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), British Council, British Academy, and Association for Research into Crimes against Art (ARCA).

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Assistant Director for Archaeology Peter Campbell presents HMA Jill Morris with a scaled-down replica statue of Antinous currently on display at the British Museum, created by digital heritage specialists ThinkSee3D Ltd. In the background you can see work by BSR Arts Council of Northern Ireland Fellow John Rainey. Photo by Luca Marinelli.

The event featured exhibitions by the Carabinieri and the BSR. The Carabinieri displayed eight artifacts that had been recovered in raids, spanning from ancient Greek vases to an Amati violin dating back to 1500. The BSR exhibition featured the destruction and looting of cultural heritage, showing post-World War II photographs from the archive taken by John Ward-Perkins to document war damage, as well as contemporary photographs from Aleppo and Palmyra in Syria. The exhibition also showed the latest methods for identifying, documenting, and sharing cultural heritage in the race to preserve archaeological sites. This included geophysics equipment, 3D documentation and printing, and holograms. For example, ThinkSee3D, a company based in Oxford, sent a reproduction of a statue of Antinous that was found on the Janiculum and is currently in the British Museum. The museum 3D scanned the statue and ThinkSee3D printed it and created a high quality cast. The statue was presented as a gift to HMA Jill Morris. The exhibition also featured contemporary art by Ian Kirkpatrick, John Rainey (2018 Arts Council of Northern Ireland Fellow), and Joseph Redpath (2018 Scholars’ Prize-winner in Architecture), who draw inspiration from Rome and ancient themes.

A panel of speakers addressed the protection of cultural heritage from various perspectives. General Parrulli of the Carabinieri detailed how they have become world leaders in the recovery of stolen antiquities. Lynda Albertson, the director of ARCA, discussed her experience of training students to disrupt the illegal trafficking and sale of antiquities. Particularly poignant was the recent sale of a Hindu statue, which was retracted due to ARCA’s intervention. MP Mark Lancaster gave perspective from the UK government and the military, as the head of armed forces.

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Peter Campbell with Minister of State for Armed Forces The Rt Hon Mark Lancaster MP at the exhibition of photographs from the BSR Ward-Perkins collection of war damage photographs.

The highlight of the event was the return of two stolen Etruscan artifacts. Taken from collections several decades ago, the artifacts turned up on the art market in London. The Metropolitan police confiscated the pieces from dealers and presented them to the Carabinieri at the event, marking the successful repatriation of these stolen works of art.

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The ceremony for the official repatriation of two Etruscan artefacts recovered by the Metropolitan Police. Photo by Luca Marinelli.

Perhaps the most significant moment in the day came with the announcement of the creation of a UK military unit to protect cultural heritage, a ‘Monuments Men’ as it was known in World War II, though the original and current units included women. Following the ratification of the 1954 Hague Convention, the UK is now enlisting specialists in cultural heritage to identify significant cultural sites in countries and work to protect them during conflict. Led by Lieutenant Coronel Tim Purbrick, the unit has started recruiting members from reservists with specializations in cultural heritage. The new Monuments Men will assist with areas in conflict and protect sites that may come under assault.

Peter Campbell (Assistant Director for Archaeology and Archaeological Science)

Excavating a Roman villa with the Ashmolean Museum and King’s College London

Last week a joint team from the BSR, the Ashmolean Museum and King’s College London completed the excavation of a small Roman villa at the village of Matrice, 10km from Campobasso in the Southern Italian region of the Molise.

Excavation 2018

Work began at the site in 1980 following its discovery during the construction of a road. At the time, Graeme Barker (later Director of the BSR 1984-1988) was leading the Biferno Valley survey, and together with John Lloyd was invited by the regional authority to investigate the site. Over the following four years John led a team of archaeologists from the Universities of Aberdeen and Sheffield in the excavation of the villa. The excavations brought to light a fascinating site, with occupation from the Samnites through until the late antique period, and it was clear that the villa could provide much information about the impact of Romanization on rural communities. Sadly John passed away in 1999 whilst the publication was in preparation, but given the importance of the site we felt obliged to bring this site to publication in his memory.

The new fieldwork began in October 2017 with a topographical survey and geophysical prospection of the site, generously funded by the Roman Society. The results, written up as a Master’s thesis by Elena Pomar as part of an internship at the BSR (Elena has joined the BSR this week as Archaeological Research Assistant) showed that the villa extended further to the west than previously understood and that within the excavated villa several areas could help better understand the earlier phases of the site.

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Archaeology Officer Stephen Kay is interviewed by RAI television. Watch the interview with Steve, as well as Paul Roberts of the Ashmolean, and Dominic Rathbone of KCL here at c. 13 minutes

In September this year a three-week season was undertaken with the aim of investigating the anomalies recorded by the geophysics and refining the chronology within different parts of the site. The excavation revealed that the magnetometry had recorded the precise position of a large cistern, still with a well-preserved cocciopesto lining belonging to the Roman phase of the site that fell out of use in the 3rd century AD. Whilst the earlier work had recorded a network of drains and rooms indicating agricultural practice, it had been unclear where the water source was to allow these processes.

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A paw print on a tile from a rubble layer inside the newly discovered cistern. Ph: Stephen Kay.

Elsewhere on site a small trench was excavated at the southern extent of the villa within a previously unexcavated room, the aim of which was to record evidence of the earlier phases of the site. Through the careful excavation of a later drain, evidence was recorded at a greater depth of the Republican phase of the complex. An intriguing aspect of the site, both for John and for us, is the Samnite phase which saw construction undertaken using large roughly trimmed limestone blocks. The aim of the new fieldwork was to reveal more of the structure and understand if it was associated with the dwelling or perhaps had another purpose. Excavating within the structure, a further wall built from limestone blocks was recorded, which can be securely dated to the 2nd century AD.

Matrice team

The 2018 fieldwork was funded through research grants from King’s College London, the Ashmolean museum and a private donation from Mr Philip Kay. The team is grateful for the support given by the Comune di Matrice. The 2018 team was: Paul Roberts, Dominic Rathbone, Stephen Kay, Elena Pomar, Christopher Siwicki, Sally Cann, Liz Gardner, Ludovica Di Tommaso, Angela Payne, Beatrice Fochetti, Erica Rowan, Tomas Jirak, Willem Beekhuis and Gabriella Iafanti.

 

Stephen Kay Archaeology Officer

 

BSR at the Sheffield Digital Humanities Congress

With eighteen sessions and three plenary talks, the biennial Digital Humanities Congress (Sheffield, 6-8 September 2018) presented a broad range of international projects and initiatives, highlighting technical solutions as well as considering critical theory and new perspectives and illustrating the enormous potential of digital media.

Clockwise from top left: Patrick O’Keeffe using digital eye-tracking technology in Rome’s baroque churches (photo by Michael Snelling); image from the John Marshall Archive research project website (courtesy BSR Photographic Archive); computer visualisation (courtesy Portus Project); image from the Ward-Perkins photographic archive (courtesy BSR Photographic Archive).

We showcased a selection of BSR projects representing the breadth and range of our interests: Graeme Earl (King’s College London), spoke about the linking of creative digital practices to architectural studies and augmented reality; Eleonora Gandolfi (University of Southampton) on the archaeology of Portus and the related MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses); Alessandra Giovenco (BSR Archivist) on creating a Library and Archive digital portal; and Patrick O’Keeffe (BSR Giles Worsley Rome Fellow 2017-18) on eye-tracking architecture.

The Library and Archive’s Digital Humanities Project aims to present our digital initiatives in a single portal, facilitating access, engaging with a wider public, generating interactive and collaborative research and integrating local and external resources. Many of our concerns were addressed in the presentations as seen below.

Sustainability

This has been an important issue for us since 2009 and is still today one of our priorities.

The problem of the funding and sustainability of digital projects and websites was addressed in the presentation by Jamie McLaughlin (University of Sheffield) who outlined a provocative and innovative solution suggesting that websites should be ‘retired’ when the funding has run out, stripped  down to the essential features, eliminating ‘bells and whistles’ but continuing to allow researchers access to the data.

He also suggested that websites ‘die’ if funding does not provide for long-term development, enhancement and maintenance. In our presentation we observed that projects dependent on individuals as opposed to institutions are at risk of obsolescence and neglect.

Metadata Curation

In the past, the quantity of metadata has often prevailed over quality on the assumption that the more we digitise, the better. However, here at the BSR we have maintained from the outset that high quality metadata is essential to facilitate high quality research.

Jo Pugh (The National Archives, Kew) questioned the merits of long descriptions of archival records and how they influence research.

Patrizia Rebulla (Archivio Storico Ricordi, Milan) discussed the role of the archivist and that of the researcher which, for them, should be distinct – the time (and cost) of cataloguing should be carefully assessed.

Data Model

The integration of our digital content originating from varying sources – our Information Library System (ILS) and Archival Management Software – is a challenge that we are addressing.

In describing the Casa Ricordi archive project, Patrizia Rebulla raised many issues on the importance of mapping data and ontologies as well as creating a robust and fit-for-purpose data model.

Standards

Another priority for us has always been the adoption of international standards for cataloguing and publishing digital content to ensure interoperability.

Fiona Candlin (Birkbeck College) highlighted the difficulty when national standards do not exist, and the problems their project encountered attempting to bring together information from 4,000 UK museums, the data of which was either inconsistent or incomplete or both.

Digital literacy

The use or misuse of digital data by researchers has raised the issue of digital literacy and the importance of teaching students how to critically evaluate and analyse digital content, given ‘the abundance and lack, at the same time, of meaningful quantity and meaningless repetition’, as pointed out by Elizabeth Williamson (University of Exeter) and Bob Shoemaker (University of Sheffield) who described strengths and weaknesses of the Digital Panopticon website

Crowdsourcing

Community engagement is another aspect of our Digital Humanities strategy. The attempt to create a scholarly community through the participation in a research project on our collections has already been made through the John Marshall Archive Project website which is currently accessible only to the research team. This is a perfect example of where crowdsourcing will be able to add real value to a research project.

Crowdsourcing tools were a frequent topic throughout the conference, giving us useful case studies that will inform our decision on how we might develop this practice in the future. The potential of crowdsourcing platforms in helping institutions enhance digital content and the conversations generated by the user engagement experience was addressed in Mia Ridge’s (The British Library) presentation.

Impact and engagement

The Congress ended with fireworks! Sarah Kenderdine (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) enthralled the audience with her extraordinary exhibitions in Australia and Asia using the latest technology and augmented reality to engage museum visitors in a heightened, interactive experience, for example using motion-capture technology with Kung Fu masters  https://vimeo.com/163153865

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The conference gave us much food for thought which is helping us to understand the digital landscape and inform the positioning of the BSR in the digital world today.

 

By the Library and Archive team: Valerie Scott (Head Librarian), Beatrice Gelosia (Deputy Librarian), Alessandra Giovenco (Archivist).

Vergil, political economy and parmesan cheese

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Lavinia Maddaluno was Rome Fellow at the BSR in 2017-18. Here she speaks about some of her current research questions on the history of the use of classics in eighteenth-century economic writings.

 

‘Omnis feret omnia tellus’. This sentence means ‘every land shall bear all fruits’. It appears in Vergil’s fourth Eclogue, and is part of Vergil’s utopian description of a future and autarkic Golden Age, when soil will produce everything, making trade and commercial exchanges unnecessary:

‘Hinc ubi iam firmata virum te fecerit aetas, cedet et ipse mari vector, nec nautica pinus mutabit merces; omnis feret omnia tellus. non rastros patietur humus, non vinea falcem’

‘Next, when now the strength of the years has made thee man, even the trader shall quit the sea, nor shall the ship of pine exchange wares; every land shall bear all fruits. The earth shall not feel the harrow, nor the vine the pruning hook’ (transl. Henry Rushton Fairclough, 1916).

Being an early modern historian and not a classicist, I must say I first encountered this phrase in the negative form of ‘non omnis feret omnia tellus’ when I was completing my PhD thesis on the intersection of science and political economy in the eighteenth-century Duchy of Milan (Cambridge University, 2017).

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More specifically, I came across it while reading a book on the production of parmesan cheese written by the first chair in agriculture at Pavia University, the botanist Giuseppe Bayle-Barelle in 1804. I started thinking further about it during my Rome Fellowship at the BSR (2017-2018), especially thanks to the continued exposure to various discussions on classical and archeological themes, something I was admittedly not that familiar with before my BSR sojourn.

But what can the use of this phrase tell us about political economy and, most importantly, why does it appear in a text on cheese?

Trying to answer my research questions, I found out that the negative version of Vergil’s ‘motto’ occurred in plenty of other eighteenth/early nineteenth-century Italian texts on political economy. I continued to enquire, and discovered that a whole history of the appropriations of this phrase in early modern Italian political economy treatises has yet to be written! Below are just some considerations which I hope to expand further and more in depth in article form over the next year or so.

Political economy is a field of investigation whose formal foundation dates back to 1754, in Naples, when the philosopher Antonio Genovesi was entrusted the first chair in economia politica. In short, political economy was about the strategies to produce, preserve, manage and increase the wealth of a state. Debates on political economy in eighteenth-century Europe often polarised, one of the most renowned polarisations being the Physiocracy/Mercantilist divide. Put simply, there was opposition between those political economic schools which claimed that the origin of wealth was to be found in agriculture exclusively, that is, in soil production, and those who instead argued that manufacturing production was also needed to assure the economic competitiveness of a state in the marketplace. It was also about a specific perspective on state intervention, and on the matter of grain trade in particular, with Physiocracy being inclined towards laisser-faire policies, and Mercantilism towards the encouragement of state intervention in the regulation of prices. However, such opposition not only obscured the idea of how wealth is produced, but also reflected a much more complex model of how human beings came to understand nature and the use of natural resources.

The context in which ‘non omnis feret omnia tellus’ kept appearing is that of pro-mercantilist writings which were critical of Physiocracy’s focus on agriculture, as well as of its belief in the universal applicability of political economic models to any state, independently of its geographical, historical, climatic and agricultural features. The use of the motto ‘non omnis feret omnia tellus’ was a way to acknowledge the limits of nature’s material productions, and stress the utopian character of autarky.

This is definitely the case with Bayle-Barelle, who used Vergil to shed light on the failure of Physiocratic models of wealth production, and suggested that states should focus on their economic strengths (and cheese in particular, in the case he is making) and import what they were unable to produce, rather than hold to the motto ‘omnis feret omnia tellus’ in the hope of being totally self-sufficient. Writing under Napoleon, Bayle-Barelle saw parmesan cheese as the epitome of northern Italian agricultural expertise, and a competitive product to exchange on the international market. Why dream of a self-generating and versatile soil or of acclimatizing exotic plants in greenhouses, if we can rely on the export of indigenous and local economic productions such as parmesan and simply import what we cannot produce? Bayle-Barelle was not the only one who appropriated Vergil’s sentence. A few decades earlier, Antonio Genovesi, the founder of political economy, had used it in his Lezioni di Commercio (1769) to shed light on the ‘necessity of commerce’, as opposed to visions of the self-enclosed state. The sentence also appeared in the Dialogues sur le commerce des blés (1770) by Ferdinando Galiani, Neapolitan ambassador in France in the 1760s, as a critical response to the Physiocratic obsession with agriculture as the exclusive origin of wealth. It also became a Republican and patriotic motto, which featured in the periodical Monitore di Roma (1798), in contributions written by the Jacobins Francesco Piranesi (son of the renowned engraver Giovanni Battista) and Giovanni Fiorani to restate the necessity of identifying the true agricultural potential of the short-lived Napoleonic Roman Republic (1798-1799).

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F. Piranesi, Monitore di Roma, 4th October 1798, p.39. Sourced from: www.monitorediroma.it

At a time when cosmopolitanism has failed and has been replaced by idealistically self-sufficient models of wealth production and autarkic and nationalistic practices of the political, a study of the appropriations of Vergil’s motto in political economy treatises seems to be timely and relevant. Such study would shed light on the history of the use of classics in eighteenth-century economic writings, but also, more broadly, on how eighteenth-century economic thinkers situated the circulation of knowledge and practices of exchange between different cultures at the centre of economic and social development. I will continue this research in autumn 2018 as a Brill Fellow at the Scaliger Institute (Leiden), working on discourses on the import of wind technologies from the Netherlands to northern Italy, as part of a broader histoire croisée of scientific practices and ideas of political economy between Italy and Europe in the early modern period.

Lavinia Maddaluno (Rome Fellow 2017-18)

BSR alumna exhibits at Pompeii and Herculaneum

Back in 2008, artist Catrin Huber visited Pompeii and Herculaneum for the very first time with her fellow BSR award-holders under the expert guidance of former BSR Director Andrew Wallace-Hadrill. This is when Catrin first fell in love with Roman wall painting.

Fast forward to 2018, and the seeds of an idea first sown during her BSR residency have come to fruition in the form of two site-specific contemporary art installations at Herculaneum and Pompeii.

The opening at Pompeii took place earlier in July in the Casa del Criptoportico. In the cryptoporticus itself, Catrin’s painted colonnade sits in dialogue with the Second Style wall paintings (inspired by episodes from the Trojan War) and incorporates replicas of everyday objects such as oil lamps.

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The second installation can be found in the area of the house containing one of the very few ‘private’ baths documented in Pompeii.

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A whole team of researchers was behind the project Expanded Interiors based at Newcastle University where Catrin is Senior Lecturer in Fine Art. The team included archaeologists Dr Thea Ravasi (Research Fellow at the BSR), Professor Ian Haynes (co-director of the BSR-Newcastle University Lateran Project) and Dr Alex Turner (Newcastle University). Their combined expertise was invaluable when it came to producing scans of the houses as well as the altered 3D replicas of Roman objects.

At the exhibition opening, speeches were given by BSR Honorary Fellow and Director of the Parco Archeologico di Pompei Massimo Osanna, as well as the Director of the contemporary art museum Museo Madre in Naples, who both discussed the value of an interdisciplinary dialogue when approaching archaeological sites.

37233072_10160680685475578_2726541695876333568_nThis dialogue between the historic and the contemporary can also be seen in the exhibition in Herculaneum which opened earlier this year. Here the installation focuses on objects, with some artistically altered replicas of rarely-seen artefacts from the storerooms of Herculaneum. The chosen location was the Casa del Bel Cortile, a significant site in the history of the excavations as it was used as a small antiquarium when the site was under the direction of the renowned Amedeo Maiuri.

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The Expanded Interiors exhibition rounds off a year of exciting initiatives for the Parco Archeologico di Ercolano and the Herculaneum Conservation Project to mark the 90th anniversary of the Scavi Nuovi initiated by Maiuri in 1927.

Both exhibitions are open to the public until January 2019.

You can read more from the Guardian here and watch a feature from RAI News here (from c. 18 minutes).

Expanded Interiors is led by Newcastle University with kind support from the Newcastle University Institute for Creative Arts Practice. The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Parco Archeologico di Pompei, Parco Archeologico di Ercolano, Herculaneum Conservation Project and Art Editions North are project partners.

Photos by Sophie Hay.

 


If you are interested in Herculaneum more generally and wider issues of conservation, take a look at the recently published volume Protective Shelters for Archaeological Sites, the proceedings of a collaborative symposium which took place at Herculaneum in 2013.

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An update from the Lateran Project

As an archaeologist, I am used to seeing transformation in many contexts and in many ways, but nothing has excited me so much as what one can witness underground in one of the most hidden, albeit historically significant areas of ancient Rome: the Lateran quarter on the Caelian. Thanks to the generous support from Mr Peter J. Smith, this year I had the opportunity to spend six months on a post-doctoral fellowship at the British School at Rome, working as a research assistant to the Lateran project, under the direction of Professors Ian Haynes (Newcastle University) and Paolo Liverani (University of Florence).

One of the aims of my research was to get a greater understanding of the excavations underneath the Lateran baptistery, where the archaeology reveals the complex series of transformations that took place in this quarter of Rome from the 1st century up to the early 4th centuries AD. The development of this part of the Caelian is well known: occupied by luxury residences for the Roman elite during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, the area was transformed by Septimius Severus, who ordered the construction of the barracks for his horse guards (the Castra Nova Equitum Singularium). Next to the barracks, at some point between the reign of Septimius Severus and Caracalla, a bath building was constructed that underwent several transformations during the 3rd century AD.  The Severan imprint on the area was completely wiped out by the Emperor Constantine, who dismantled the corps of the equites singulares and gave the land where the barracks and the baths were built to the church. This event marked the beginning of what we can still see today, as the barracks and the baths were completely dismantled, and replaced by the construction of the Constantinian basilica and of the baptistery. As part of my research on the Severan baths, I was able to suggest a new phasing for the building and get a greater understanding of its design and final layout.

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The remains of the Severan bath complex and of its Late Antique transformations under the Lateran Baptistery (photo: A. Turner ©The Lateran Project)

I am spending the remaining time of my fellowship in Rome working on the future development of the Lateran project. After six years of intense surveying of the excavations under the Lateran basilica and baptistery, the Lateran team has now expanded its investigations beyond the limits of the basilica, to get a better understanding of how political, social and religious changes that occurred in Rome during the Imperial age reflected in the transformation of this portion of the Caelian hill. The new investigation is taking place within the property of the Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni-Addolorata and is carried out as part of an agreement between all the institutions that are currently involved in the area: the Soprintendenza Speciale Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio di Roma, the University of Florence (IT), Newcastle University (UK) with the British School at Rome, the Seinan Gakuin University of Fukuoka (JP) and the Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni-Addolorata.

The portion of the Caelian occupied by the modern Azienda Ospedaliera underwent huge transformations during the Roman era: situated outside the Servian walls and the pomerium of the city, but easily and quickly accessible from the city centre and conveniently set on a raised plateau, the area was cut across by the via Caelimontana and by the via Tuscolana. The excavations carried out between 1957 and 1978 within the property of the Azienda Ospedaliera have revealed a complex of properties that were distributed around this important crossing point of the Caelian and that were variously transformed from the Imperial age to Late Antiquity.  During the 1st and the 2nd centuries AD, a series of richly decorated aristocratic houses were built. Among these properties were the horti Domitia Lucilla, mother of Marcus Aurelius.

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Inscription on a water lead pipe, mentioning Domitia Lucilla, found in the Lateran area (photo: T. Ravasi ©The Lateran Project)

The property, where the future emperor spent his early years until his adoption by Antoninus Pius, likely encompassed a residential building with a richly decorated peristyle and a small bath complex and an area destined for the production and storage of wine.

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The area underneath Corsia Mazzoni in the old Ospedale di San Giovanni (photo: T. Ravasi ©The Lateran Project)

If the impact of the Severan and Constantinian transformations is broadly understood in the eastern part of the Caelian, it is however still unclear what role it had in the development of the residential properties found in the Azienda Ospedaliera di San Giovanni-Addolorata.

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The area underneath the Ospedale delle Infermiere (photo: T. Ravasi ©The Lateran Project)

It is likely however that the area kept, at least partially, its residential nature. As part of the 2018 fieldwork, the Lateran team has completed a laser scan survey and comprehensive reassessment of the stratigraphy of the structures in three out of four of the excavated areas within the property of the Azienda Ospedaliera, providing a foundation for further interpretation of the area.

Thea Ravasi (BSR Research Fellow)