Introducing…Peter Campbell, Assistant Director for Archaeology and Archaeological Science

dsc_2810It has been a pleasure to return to the British School at Rome as the Assistant Director for Archaeology and Archaeological Science. As a Research Fellow at the BSR in 2017-2018 working on the Portus Project, I engulfed myself in the community’s mixing of ideas from artists, historians, filmmakers, poets, archaeologists, and the numerous other disciplines that flow through the building. Starting as Assistant Director, I look forward to facilitating this interconnectedness between our awardees, fellows, visitors, students, and the public.

My PhD in archaeology is from the University of Southampton, while my MA (East Carolina University) and BA (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) were in maritime archaeology and anthropology. My research broadly examines the spread of ideas through Mediterranean maritime connectivity. As a result, I typically work underwater on shipwrecks, harbours, and sunken cities. However, I enjoy terrestrial survey and excavation, frequently working in cave sites (writing the chapter on archaeology in the National Speleological Society’s Caving Basics). Mixing caves and underwater research, I edited the book The Archaeology of Underwater Caves which examines paleolandscapes and ritual sites around the world. I have directed archaeological projects in six countries, mostly concentrated in the central and eastern Mediterranean. Currently, I co-direct the Egadi Islands Survey Project in Sicily and Fournoi Underwater Survey in Greece. My research uses archaeological science such as elemental and molecular analyses, but also UV/IR fluorescence, paleomagnetic dating, isotope analysis.


Amphorae from part of a reef where a shipwreck occurred. Photo by Vasilis Mentogianis.

Beyond field archaeology, I research the illicit antiquities trade and my work has been used in policy papers and presented to the OSCE, INTERPOL, and UNESCO. I enjoy teaching and have experience in a variety of higher education contexts, as well as taking new approaches to education through digital learning such as FutureLearn and TED Ed . I also maintain an active public profile, publishing articles in New York Times , Bloomberg, and The Guardian, as well as recently appearing on BBC, CNN, History Channel, and National Geographic. I am often found on Twitter @peterbcampbell.


A diver carefully raises an amphora to the surface. Photo by Vasilis Mentogianis.

I look forward to the challenge of further building existing research projects and finding new research avenues for the BSR. Together with Director Stephen Milner and Assistant Directors Harriet O’Neill (Humanities and Social Sciences) and Martina Caruso (Art, Architecture and the Creative Industries), we are planning a series of impactful events, conferences, and projects. Over the next year, we will host events on subjects such as Object-Oriented Ontology and the Anthropocene, conferences on archaeological science and machine learning, and seek to bridge art and research through exhibitions. As a person who is collaborative at heart, I am thrilled to have a position within such a prestigious interdisciplinary institution.

Peter Campbell (Assistant Director for Archaeology and Archaeological Science)

Portrait photo by Antonio Palmieri. Cover image by Vasilis Mentogianis.

Peter Campbell, along with fellow Assistant Directors Martina Caruso (BSR) and Harriet O’Neill (BSR), will speak in the UK in March.

MONDAY 11 MARCH 2019, 18.00–20.00

A legacy and trajectory of interdisciplinarity at the BSR

The BSR Assistant Directors will examine the origins of the British School at Rome in the early twentieth century, in particular its award-holders’ exploration of art, architecture and archaeology. They will discuss their personal research and the points of connection between them. Continuing the legacy of interdisciplinarity, the talk will examine the pathway forward, and how to pursue this collaborative trajectory into the BSR’s twelfth decade.

This event will be held at the British Academy, 10 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AH. Please contact if you wish to attend.

BSR at BMTA 2018

The Borsa Mediterranea del Turismo Archeologico saw its 21st edition this year with a rich range of events hosted in the breath-taking surroundings of the Parco Archeologico di Paestum (15-18 November 2018). Tourism and cultural heritage stakeholders, cultural associations, publishers, academics and educators from Italy and other Mediterranean countries (and beyond) took the opportunity to display and promote their activities at this annual fair.

Fig 1

Paestum, Temples of ‘Neptune’ and Hera 

Fig 2

Andriuolo, Tomb 53: slab with depiction of duel and chariot race

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Rome stand at BMTA 2018 

Among the numerous initiatives that took place over these four days, particular emphasis was put on themes of cultural exchanges and interrelationships. Given the growing climate of political – and cultural – isolation in countries such as Italy, the UK and the USA, archaeology is crying out for the need to reach out rather than to hide behind physical or ideological borders. Indeed, cultural heritage as a universal value knows no boundaries by definition.

The Dialogues on the Archaeology of Magna Graecia and the Ancient Mediterranean focused on the concepts of ‘Identity and Belonging’, by assessing and comparing different interpretative models. The session was chaired by Emanuele Greco (President of the Fondazione Paestum) and Carmine Ampolo (Accademia dei Lincei and Emeritus Professor of the Scuola Normale di Pisa). It featured talks by international scholars who addressed this subject through the perspective of archaeology, history, art history and philosophy.

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Opening of the Dialogues on Magna Graecia and the Mediterranean

Another highlight was the presentation of current archaeological projects in Italy by the foreign institutes in Rome. As customary, this session was run jointly by the Associazione Italiana di Archeologia Classica – AIAC and the Unione Internazionale degli Istituti di Archeologia, Storia e Storia dell’Arte in Roma. This year’s panel included presentations by Kristian Göransson (President of AIAC and Director of the Swedish Institute of Classical Studies in Rome), Ria Berg (Institutum Romanum Finlandiae) and Tesse Stek (Reale Istituto Neerlandese di Roma). This wide range of research projects, including those conducted by the BSR, is of crucial importance for fostering international collaborations. The work carried out by these institutes is not just based in Italy, but is also for Italy and, especially, with Italy – an example of the far-reaching impact of cultural and scientific exchanges. Over the past month the BSR has worked with colleagues from Berlin at Morgantina, with the Swedish Institute at Francavilla and with the British Museum in Sudan.

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Panel with the foreign institutes in Rome

Emblematic of this year’s leading theme, one of the principal sessions was dedicated to ‘Intercultural Dialogue as a Universal Value of Identity and Heritage’. Starting with the remembrance of the tragic episodes of the Bardo Museum and the destructions at Palmyra, the discussion was chaired by Stefania Battistini (RAI Tg1 journalist) and featured contributions by Moncef Ben Moussa (Director of the Development of Museums for INP Tunisia), Paolo Verri (Director of the Foundation Matera-Basilicata 2019) and Paolo Matthiae (Director of the archaeological mission in Syria by the University of Rome La Sapienza) among many others. The ‘Khaled al-Asaad Prize 2018’ was awarded to Benjamin Clément (Researcher of Archaeology and Archaeometry at CNRS) for his discovery of the ‘Small Pompeii’ at Vienne (France).

Fig 6

Discussion on the importance of intercultural dialogue 

Alongside the panels in the two conference venues, the Borsa also hosted a number of events at the Archaeological Museum of Paestum: ‘hands-on’ sessions on archaeological artefacts, re-enactments of ancient production techniques, interactive workshops and meetings with archaeologists for schools and the general public. Walking around the museum display of architectural sculpture from the temples of Paestum and the Heraion at Foce del Sele, visitors could experience the wonders of 3D reconstructions and virtual reality. The exhibition ArcheoVirtual 2018 was co-organized by the CNR ITABC Laboratory of Virtual Reality, the MiBAC General Direction of Museums and BMTA. By stimulating the visitors’ visual senses and perception of ancient monuments, the exhibition was a pleasant way to connect past, present and future, thus making archaeological information easily accessible to a broad audience.

Fig 7

Virtual reality in the Archaeological Museum of Paestum

Fig 8

ArcheoVirtual 2018 exhibition


Text and photos by Niccolò Mugnai (Research Fellow)

All about Concrete: from the Pantheon to the Present

Last week we held the workshop All about Concrete: from the Pantheon to the Present, the second in the BSR’s series of interdisciplinary research study days in the UK on the historicity of materials and the work of the BSR. This event was generously sponsored by the Concrete Centre and hosted by the University of Liverpool in London. 


The day, organised by BSR faculty members Vivien Lovell, MaryAnne Stevens and Marco Iuliano, comprised a series of presentations on the use of concrete over two millennia. Speakers highlighted the extreme versatility, strength and plasticity of the material.

Alan Powers (London School of Architecture) opened the day with a keynote presentation exploring ‘Cult Contrete’, which provoked lively debate.

The first panel session, chaired by MaryAnne Stevens, explored the history of the use of concrete. Presentations encompassed over two thousand years of use from ancient Rome to Carlo Scarpa (1906–1978). Janet DeLaine introduced us to the seven virtues of concrete in ancient Rome, while Joseph Rykwert touched on the Renaissance ‘rediscovery’ of ancient concrete techniques. Richard Murphy closed the session, bringing us forward into the twentieth century, with his discussion of Scarpa’s use of water in his architectural projects – an analogy for concrete.

Related image

Giovanni Paolo Panini,
Interior of the Pantheon, Rome
c. 1734

After lunch participants were split into three groups and were treated to a study visit to to the Barbican Estate and Centre. These groups were led simultaneously by Catherine Croft (C20 Society), Dave King (Architect and Barbican Resident) and Vicky Richardson (Writer and Curator, of architecture and design). Even those who thought they knew the Estate well, were surprised to learn that there are over 100 different property types on the estate; that all of the concrete was hand chiselled (including the towers!); and that the water features were dyed to reflect depth.

We reconvened after the visits for the second panel session chaired by Vivien Lovell, which covered the contemporary use of concrete. Artist, Florian Roithmayr presented current work and described his process. Participants were able to see first hand concrete sculptures which Florian had on display throughout the day.


Concrete sculptures by Florian Roithmayr

Following this, organiser Marco Iuliano was in conversation with photographer Helene Binet, discussing themes in her architectural photographs of concrete structures. Finally Jo Melvin introduced us to the concept of concrete poetry and how it is produced in contemporary art practice.

The afternoon was concluded by two readings. Organiser Vivien Lovell read a poem entitled ‘Times New Roman’ by Pele Cox (written especially for the event) and Vicky Richardson read a passage from J G Ballard’s ‘Concrete Island’.

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Concluding remarks were given by architect Eric Parry who succinctly synthesised the presentations and the interdisciplinary conversations of the day.

Text and photographs by Natasha Burbridge and Alice Marsh, BSR London Office.

Ancient tokens and their communities

For the month of October, BSR alumna Clare Rowan has been staying at the BSR to conduct fieldwork for her European Research Council funded project Token Communities in the Ancient Mediterranean. Here she tells us more about her own research on the subject, and the project’s workshop that was held here at the BSR last week.

Tokens in antiquity were monetiform objects, largely made of lead, that were created across the Mediterranean at a very local level. Tokens likely served a variety of purposes: they might aid in governmental procedures (e.g. Athens), serve as banquet tickets (e.g. Palmyra), were used in cults and festivals (e.g. in Rome), and may also have served as a sort of currency at times, particularly in bath houses.

gliti token

Lead token (20mm) from a private collection showing on one side a male head surrounded by the legend P GLITI GALLI; the other side shows a rooster carrying a wreath and palm branch. The image is a visual pun on the name of Gallus, which meant ‘rooster’ in Latin.

The find spots of tokens aid us in understanding how they were used. Their imagery reveals information about ancient identities, imagery and ancient joie de vivre. While at the BSR, I have been focusing on the tokens of Rome and Ostia, working at Ostia to look through the archives of excavations (Giornali degli Scavi) for tokens and token moulds found in the port. I have also been cataloguing the token collections in the Museo Nazionale Palazzo Massimo, the Capitoline Museums, as well as a collection that was recently acquired by the Archaeological Museum at Palestrina. This last collection consists of more than 1000 specimens, many of which are new types. By using archival and library materials to locate where token moulds (made of palombino or lunense marble) and lead casting waste are found, I have been able to begin to identify that tokens were privately manufactured across both Rome and Ostia, connecting particular types to particular buildings, and even particular tabernae.

lighthouse token

Lead token (22mm) from a private collection showing the lighthouse of Portus on one side and the legend ANT on the other.

A workshop was also held at the BSR on the 18 and 19 October, Tokens, Value and Identity, Exploring Monetiform Objects in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, organised by a postdoctoral fellow in the project, Antonino Crisà. Scholars from around the world came to discuss tokens from different collections and excavations across the Mediterranean.

palombino token mould harvard

Half of a palombino marble mould for casting circular tokens showing Fortuna holding a rudder and cornucopiae. Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Transfer from the Alice Corinne McDaniel Collection, Department of the Classics, Harvard University, 2008.118

The workshop underlined the idea that tokens were made very locally, often unique to a particular city – the method of using marble moulds to cast tokens, for example, appears to be found only in Rome and its port. The exchanges among the scholars who attended continued to contribute to the development of a methodology to study these objects, which have not seen serious attention since Rostovtzeff in the 19th century. If you are interested in seeing and learning more about these objects, you can find the blog entries of the team members here:

tokens workshop bsr

Speakers at the Tokens, Value and Identity Conference

Clare Rowan (Associate Professor, University of Warwick and former BSR-Macquarie Gale Rome Scholar)

Opening of the nymphaeum of Q. Mutius at Segni

Since 2013 the British School at Rome has worked in partnership with the Comune di Segni on the excavation and conservation of the nymphaeum of Q. Mutius, a monumental fountain in the town of Segni. This Saturday 20 October we are delighted to celebrate the opening of this monument to the public which will now form part of the archaeological visit to Segni, together with the Porta Saracena and the impressive polygonal walls, the well-preserved Temple of Juno Moneta and the archaeological museum of Segni.

Segni nymphaeum photogrammetry post excavation

Post-excavation photogrammetry of the Segni nymphaeum.

The inauguration will commence at 10.30 a.m. with welcome speeches by Piero Cascioli, Mayor of Segni, Laura Onorati, Dirigente Città Metropolitana, Quirino Briganti, President of the Compagnia dei Lepini, Margherita Eichberg, Soprintendente ABAP Città Metropolitana Roma, Provincia di Viterbo e Etruria Meridionale and the Director of the BSR Professor Stephen Milner.

New protective structure for the nymphaeum at Segni

New protective structure for the nymphaeum at Segni.

Following this there will be brief presentations by Michelangelo Bedini, Fulvio Balzani and Francesco Maria Cifarelli (BSR Research Fellow) about the restoration project of the nymphaeum; by Stephen Kay (BSR Archaeological Officer) and Federica Colaiacomo about the excavation and by Francesco Maria Cifarelli about the architecture and history of this monument from the late Republican period. Visits to the monument will begin at 12.30 with other organised tours at 15.00 and 18.00. We very much hope that many of you can join us too celebrate this occasion.

Segni - Invito 20 ottobre (2)-1


Stephen Kay (Archaeology Officer)

Repatriation of ancient artifacts and the launch of the UK’s Monuments Men: Cultural Protection event at Villa Wolkonsky

On October 11, 2018, the UK Embassy and British School at Rome hosted an event at Villa Wolkonsky, the British Ambassador’s residence. The focus of the event was the protection of cultural heritage and it was attended by representatives from the UK and Italian governments, Carabinieri, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), British Council, British Academy, and Association for Research into Crimes against Art (ARCA).

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Assistant Director for Archaeology Peter Campbell presents HMA Jill Morris with a scaled-down replica statue of Antinous currently on display at the British Museum, created by digital heritage specialists ThinkSee3D Ltd. In the background you can see work by BSR Arts Council of Northern Ireland Fellow John Rainey. Photo by Luca Marinelli.

The event featured exhibitions by the Carabinieri and the BSR. The Carabinieri displayed eight artifacts that had been recovered in raids, spanning from ancient Greek vases to an Amati violin dating back to 1500. The BSR exhibition featured the destruction and looting of cultural heritage, showing post-World War II photographs from the archive taken by John Ward-Perkins to document war damage, as well as contemporary photographs from Aleppo and Palmyra in Syria. The exhibition also showed the latest methods for identifying, documenting, and sharing cultural heritage in the race to preserve archaeological sites. This included geophysics equipment, 3D documentation and printing, and holograms. For example, ThinkSee3D, a company based in Oxford, sent a reproduction of a statue of Antinous that was found on the Janiculum and is currently in the British Museum. The museum 3D scanned the statue and ThinkSee3D printed it and created a high quality cast. The statue was presented as a gift to HMA Jill Morris. The exhibition also featured contemporary art by Ian Kirkpatrick, John Rainey (2018 Arts Council of Northern Ireland Fellow), and Joseph Redpath (2018 Scholars’ Prize-winner in Architecture), who draw inspiration from Rome and ancient themes.

A panel of speakers addressed the protection of cultural heritage from various perspectives. General Parrulli of the Carabinieri detailed how they have become world leaders in the recovery of stolen antiquities. Lynda Albertson, the director of ARCA, discussed her experience of training students to disrupt the illegal trafficking and sale of antiquities. Particularly poignant was the recent sale of a Hindu statue, which was retracted due to ARCA’s intervention. MP Mark Lancaster gave perspective from the UK government and the military, as the head of armed forces.


Peter Campbell with Minister of State for Armed Forces The Rt Hon Mark Lancaster MP at the exhibition of photographs from the BSR Ward-Perkins collection of war damage photographs.

The highlight of the event was the return of two stolen Etruscan artifacts. Taken from collections several decades ago, the artifacts turned up on the art market in London. The Metropolitan police confiscated the pieces from dealers and presented them to the Carabinieri at the event, marking the successful repatriation of these stolen works of art.


The ceremony for the official repatriation of two Etruscan artefacts recovered by the Metropolitan Police. Photo by Luca Marinelli.

Perhaps the most significant moment in the day came with the announcement of the creation of a UK military unit to protect cultural heritage, a ‘Monuments Men’ as it was known in World War II, though the original and current units included women. Following the ratification of the 1954 Hague Convention, the UK is now enlisting specialists in cultural heritage to identify significant cultural sites in countries and work to protect them during conflict. Led by Lieutenant Coronel Tim Purbrick, the unit has started recruiting members from reservists with specializations in cultural heritage. The new Monuments Men will assist with areas in conflict and protect sites that may come under assault.

Peter Campbell (Assistant Director for Archaeology and Archaeological Science)

Excavating a Roman villa with the Ashmolean Museum and King’s College London

Last week a joint team from the BSR, the Ashmolean Museum and King’s College London completed the excavation of a small Roman villa at the village of Matrice, 10km from Campobasso in the Southern Italian region of the Molise.

Excavation 2018

Work began at the site in 1980 following its discovery during the construction of a road. At the time, Graeme Barker (later Director of the BSR 1984-1988) was leading the Biferno Valley survey, and together with John Lloyd was invited by the regional authority to investigate the site. Over the following four years John led a team of archaeologists from the Universities of Aberdeen and Sheffield in the excavation of the villa. The excavations brought to light a fascinating site, with occupation from the Samnites through until the late antique period, and it was clear that the villa could provide much information about the impact of Romanization on rural communities. Sadly John passed away in 1999 whilst the publication was in preparation, but given the importance of the site we felt obliged to bring this site to publication in his memory.

The new fieldwork began in October 2017 with a topographical survey and geophysical prospection of the site, generously funded by the Roman Society. The results, written up as a Master’s thesis by Elena Pomar as part of an internship at the BSR (Elena has joined the BSR this week as Archaeological Research Assistant) showed that the villa extended further to the west than previously understood and that within the excavated villa several areas could help better understand the earlier phases of the site.

RAI Interview

Archaeology Officer Stephen Kay is interviewed by RAI television. Watch the interview with Steve, as well as Paul Roberts of the Ashmolean, and Dominic Rathbone of KCL here at c. 13 minutes

In September this year a three-week season was undertaken with the aim of investigating the anomalies recorded by the geophysics and refining the chronology within different parts of the site. The excavation revealed that the magnetometry had recorded the precise position of a large cistern, still with a well-preserved cocciopesto lining belonging to the Roman phase of the site that fell out of use in the 3rd century AD. Whilst the earlier work had recorded a network of drains and rooms indicating agricultural practice, it had been unclear where the water source was to allow these processes.

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A paw print on a tile from a rubble layer inside the newly discovered cistern. Ph: Stephen Kay.

Elsewhere on site a small trench was excavated at the southern extent of the villa within a previously unexcavated room, the aim of which was to record evidence of the earlier phases of the site. Through the careful excavation of a later drain, evidence was recorded at a greater depth of the Republican phase of the complex. An intriguing aspect of the site, both for John and for us, is the Samnite phase which saw construction undertaken using large roughly trimmed limestone blocks. The aim of the new fieldwork was to reveal more of the structure and understand if it was associated with the dwelling or perhaps had another purpose. Excavating within the structure, a further wall built from limestone blocks was recorded, which can be securely dated to the 2nd century AD.

Matrice team

The 2018 fieldwork was funded through research grants from King’s College London, the Ashmolean museum and a private donation from Mr Philip Kay. The team is grateful for the support given by the Comune di Matrice. The 2018 team was: Paul Roberts, Dominic Rathbone, Stephen Kay, Elena Pomar, Christopher Siwicki, Sally Cann, Liz Gardner, Ludovica Di Tommaso, Angela Payne, Beatrice Fochetti, Erica Rowan, Tomas Jirak, Willem Beekhuis and Gabriella Iafanti.


Stephen Kay Archaeology Officer